Adjust Text Size:change font sizechange font sizechange font sizechange font sizechange font sizechange font size

Featured Research

What can we learn by studying exercise and Parkinson's? PDF-funded researcher Kristen Pickett, Ph.D., is using magnetic resonance imaging to help find answers to improve life for people with PD.

Learn More

PDF Grant Programs

Are you interested in furthering Parkinson's science? View PDF's open grant programs.

Learn More


Quality of Life

PDF's targeted PubMed search provides you with access to journal articles from the last 90 days that may be pertinent to Parkinson's disease research. 

Not what you're looking for? Do you need informational publications about Parkinson's targeted for people living with Parkinson's, caregivers and family members?  Please browse PDF's educational materials and programs - which are all available electronically or in print.  Order for yourself, a loved one or in bulk for your patients or support group.


Prevención de Caídas

1) PDF Research Centers

Columbia


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Columbia%5BAD%5D%20AND%20(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(alcalay%20rn%5Bau%5D%20OR%20burke%20rb%5BAU%5D%20OR%20clark%20l%5BAU%5D%20OR%20fahn%20s%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Ford%20B%5BAU%5D%20OR%20greene%20l%5BAU%5D%20OR%20greene%20p%5BAU%5D%20OR%20kuo%20sh%5Bau%5D%20OR%20louis%20e%5BAU%5D%20OR%20marder%20k%5BAU%5D%20OR%20mazzoni%20p%5BAU%5D%20OR%20przedborski%20s%5BAU%5D%20OR%20pullman%20s%5BAU%5D%20OR%20stern%20y%5BAU%5D%20OR%20sulzer%20d%5BAU%5D%20OR%20vonsattel%5BAU%5D%20OR%20waters%20c%5BAU%5D%20OR%20yamamoto%20a%5BAU%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Rush


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Rush%5BAD%5D%20AND%20(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Barton%20B%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Bernard%20B%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Comella%20C%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Goldman%20J%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Goetz%20C%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Hall%20D%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Kompoliti%20K%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Kordower%20J%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Shannon%20K%5BAU%5D%20Stebbins%20G%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Verhagen%20L%5BAU%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Cornell


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Cornell%5BAD%5D%20AND%20(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Beal%20MF%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Henchcliffe%20c%5BAU%5D%20OR%20Nirenberg%20m%5BAU%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

PARKINSON’S DISEASE TOPIC AREAS
Understanding Parkinson’s


Motor Symptoms
    

General

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(motor%5BAll%20Fields%5D%20AND%20(%22diagnosis%22%5BSubheading%5D%20OR%20%22diagnosis%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D%20OR%20%22symptoms%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D%20OR%20%22diagnosis%22%5BMeSH%20Terms%5D%20OR%20%22symptoms%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D))%20NOT%20(%E2%80%9Cnon-motor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9Cnon%20motor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9Cnonmotor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)%20AND%20(%22review%22%5BPublication%20Type%5D%20OR%20%22review%20literature%20as%20topic%22%5BMeSH%20Terms%5D%20OR%20%22review%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D)

    Balance and Falls

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Balance%20%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Falls%20%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)
    Gait or Freezing

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Gait%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Freezing%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

    Dyskinesia
    Nonmotor Symptoms and Complications

    General
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%E2%80%9Cnon-motor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9Cnon%20motor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9Cnonmotor%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Pain
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(pain%5BTI%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Sleep and Fatigue/ REM Behavior Sleep Disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Sleep%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Fatigue%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9DREM%20behavior%20disorder%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

    Gastrointestinal and Urinary Function
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Gastrointestinal%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Urinary%20%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9CBowel%20dysfunction%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9CBladder%20dysfunction%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

    Cognition and Hallucination

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(cognition%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20hallucination%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Impulse Control Disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Impulse%20Control%20Disorder%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20ICD%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20gambling%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20shopping%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20hypersexuality%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Vision/Visual hallucination

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Blurred%20vision%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Photophobia%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Asthenopia%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Double%20vision%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Visual%20hallucination%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20spatial%20relations%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20color%20perception%5BTIAB%5D)

Oral
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(dental%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20dysphagia%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20burning%20mouth%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20drooling%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20teeth%5BTIAB%5D%20or%20sialorrhea%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20gingiva%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20periodontal%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Speech
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(speech%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20hypophonia%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20verbal%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Orthostatic Hypotension
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(Orthostatic%20Hypotension%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Etiology/Pathology

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(etiology%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20pathology%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20disease%20model%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22review%22%5BPublication%20Type%5D%20OR%20%22review%20literature%20as%20topic%22%5BMeSH%20Terms%5D%20OR%20%22review%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Imaging Studies
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(imaging%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20MRI%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20fMRI%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20PET%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20SPECT%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)


Clinical Studies

General
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20Clinical%20Trial%5Bptyp%5D%20AND%20(%22last%20180%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Genetics

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22genetics%22%5BSubheading%5D%20OR%20%22genetics%22%5BAll%20Fields%5D%20OR%20%22genetics%22%5BMeSH%20Terms%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)


Treating Parkinson’s

Current and potential medications/Therapies http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(treatment%5BTI%5D%20OR%20therapy%5BTI%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

    Surgical Treatments
        
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(stem%20cell%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(treatment%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)
    
Gene Therapy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(gene%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Deep Brain Stimulation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(gene%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Physical, Occupational and Speech Therapy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(physical%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20occupational%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20speech%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20rehabilitation%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Nutrition

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(diet%5Btiab%5D%20OR%20nutrition%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Exercise
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(exercise%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Art and Music

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(art%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20painting%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20creativity%5BTIAB%5DOR%20music%5BTIAB%5D)%20NOT%20%E2%80%9Cstate%20of%20the%20art%E2%80%9D%5BTIAB%5D%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)


Complementary and Alternative Therapies
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(complementary%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20alternative%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Adjunct%20therapy%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)


Living with a Parkinson’s Diagnosis

Driving
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(driving%5BTIAB%5D%20AND%20(car%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20automobile%5BTIAB%5D))

Hospitalization


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(hospitalization%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Care giving
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(caregiver%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20caregiving%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20hygiene%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20dressing%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20support%20group%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20health%20care%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20home%20care%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20helpline%5BTIAB%5D)AND%20(%22last%2090%20days%22%5BDP%5D)

Hospice/End of Life/Palliative Care
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=(Parkinson%5BTIAB%5D%20OR%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%20disease%5BTIAB%5D)%20AND%20(hospice%5BTI%5D%20OR%20%E2%80%9Cend%20of%20life%E2%80%9D%5BTI%5D%20OR%20palliative%5BTI%5D)

Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.
Jay S Schneider, Stephanie Sendek, Chengwu Yang
PLoS One 2015 ; 10(4):e0123231
PMID: 25905783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Speech disorders reflect differing pathophysiology in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy.
Jan Rusz, Cecilia Bonnet, Ji?í Klempí?, Tereza Tykalová, Eva Baborová, Michal Novotný, Aaron Rulseh, Ev?en R??i?ka
J Neurol 2015 Apr; 262(4):992-1001
PMID: 25683763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Face-referenced measurement of perioral stiffness and speech kinematics in Parkinson's disease.
Shin Ying Chu, Steven M Barlow, Jaehoon Lee
J Speech Lang Hear Res 2015 Apr; 58(2):201-12
PMID: 25629806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


The intrinsic resting state voice network in Parkinson's disease.
Anneliese B New, Donald A Robin, Amy L Parkinson, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Felix Hoffstaedter, Christian Mathys, Martin Sudmeyer, Christian Grefkes, Charles R Larson, Loraine O Ramig, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff
Hum Brain Mapp 2015 May; 36(5):1951-62
PMID: 25627959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Pareidolia in Parkinson's disease without dementia: A positron emission tomography study.
Makoto Uchiyama, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Kayoko Yokoi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Atsushi Takeda, Etsuro Mori
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2015 Mar;
PMID: 25864093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Retrospective assessment of movement disorder society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.
Andrea M Loftus, Romola S Bucks, Meghan Thomas, Robert Kane, Caitlin Timms, Roger A Barker, Natalie Gasson
J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2015 Feb; 21(2):137-45
PMID: 25666735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Detecting and monitoring the symptoms of Parkinson's disease using smartphones: A pilot study.
S Arora, V Venkataraman, A Zhan, S Donohue, K M Biglan, E R Dorsey, M A Little
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2015 Mar;
PMID: 25819808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Design and development of a novel supportive care product for the treatment of sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease.
Neal M Farber, Santiago Perez-Lloret, Elkan R Gamzu
Curr Top Med Chem 2015 ; 15(10):939-54
PMID: 25832720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Long-term follow-up of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Chinese Parkinson's disease patients.
Jianyu Li, Yuqing Zhang, Yongjie Li
Br J Neurosurg 2015 Mar; :1-5
PMID: 25812021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Manganese transport disorder: Novel SLC30A10 mutations and early phenotypes.
Marialuisa Quadri, Mahesh Kamate, Suvasini Sharma, Simone Olgiati, Josja Graafland, Guido J Breedveld, Indu Kori, Virupaxi Hattiholi, Puneet Jain, Satinder Aneja, Atin Kumar, Parveen Gulati, Medha Goel, Bibek Talukdar, Vincenzo Bonifati
Mov Disord 2015 Mar;
PMID: 25778823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Can rhythmic auditory cuing remediate language-related deficits in Parkinson's disease?
Sonja A Kotz, Thomas C Gunter
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2015 Mar; 1337:62-8
PMID: 25773618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Writing tremor secondary to ischemic stroke: a report on a case with a remarkable response to topiramate.
Juan P Paviolo, Gabriela B Raina, Eugenia Conti, Federico Micheli
Clin Neuropharmacol 2015 Mar-Apr; 38(2):57-9
PMID: 25768853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis.
Antje Mefferd
J Speech Lang Hear Res 2015 Mar;
PMID: 25763998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Narrative Discourse Cohesion in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.
Charles Ellis, Bruce Crosson, Leslie J Gonzalez Rothi, Michael S Okun, John C Rosenbek
J Parkinsons Dis 2015 Mar;
PMID: 25757829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.
Michael H Thaut
Prog Brain Res 2015 ; 217:253-66
PMID: 25725919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Tolerance of the VocaLog? Vocal Monitor by Healthy Persons and Individuals With Parkinson Disease.
Jeff Searl, Angela M Dietsch
J Voice 2015 Feb;
PMID: 25726068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Voice features of Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.
Yasuhiro Tanaka, Takashi Tsuboi, Hirohisa Watanabe, Yasukazu Kajita, Yasushi Fujimoto, Reiko Ohdake, Noritaka Yoneyama, Michihito Masuda, Kazuhiro Hara, Joe Senda, Mizuki Ito, Naoki Atsuta, Satoshi Horiguchi, Masahiko Yamamoto, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Gen Sobue
J Neurol 2015 Feb;
PMID: 25712544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Speech Prosody Across Stimulus Types for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.
Joan K-Y Ma, Christine B Schneider, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Alexander Storch
J Parkinsons Dis 2015 Feb;
PMID: 25697957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Impact of the LSVT on vowel articulation and coarticulation in Parkinson's disease.
Vincent Martel Sauvageau, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Mélanie Langlois, Joël Macoir
Clin Linguist Phon 2015 Feb; :1-17
PMID: 25688915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Characteristics of language impairment in Parkinson's disease and its influencing factors.
Lin Liu, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chui-Liang Dy, Yan Ren, Yu Feng, Hong-Mei Yu, Hong Shang, Zhi-Yi He
Transl Neurodegener 2015 ; 4(1):2
PMID: 25685335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Speech rate in Parkinson's disease: A controlled study.
F Martínez-Sánchez, J J G Meilán, J Carro, C Gómez Íńiguez, L Millian-Morell, I M Pujante Valverde, T López-Alburquerque, D E López
Neurologia 2015 Feb;
PMID: 25660139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]