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The neurotoxicity of iron, copper and manganese in Parkinson's and Wilson's diseases.
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J Trace Elem Med Biol 2014 Jun;
Authors: Petr Dusek, Per M Roos, Tomasz Litwin, Susanne A Schneider, Trond Peder Flaten, Jan Aaseth
Impaired cellular homeostasis of metals, particularly of Cu, Fe and Mn may trigger neurodegeneration through various mechanisms, notably induction of oxidative stress, promotion of ?-synuclein aggregation and fibril formation, activation of microglial cells leading to inflammation and impaired production of metalloproteins. In this article we review available studies concerning Fe, Cu and Mn in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. In Parkinson's disease local dysregulation of iron metabolism in the substantia nigra (SN) seems to be related to neurodegeneration with an increase in SN iron concentration, accompanied by decreased SN Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations and increased free Cu concentrations and decreased ferroxidase activity in the cerebrospinal fluid. Available data in Wilson's disease suggest that substantial increases in CNS Cu concentrations persist for a long time during chelating treatment and that local accumulation of Fe in certain brain nuclei may occur during the course of the disease. Consequences for chelating treatment strategies are discussed.
PMID: 24954801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]