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Linking Alzheimer's Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via Aberrant Insulin Signaling and Inflammation.
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CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2013 Sep;
Authors: M A Kamal, S Priyamvada, N A Arivarasu, N R Jabir, S Tabrez, N H Greig
Metabolomics & Enzymology Unit, Fundamental and Applied Biology Group, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two progressive and devastating health disorders afflicting millions of people worldwide. The probability and incidence of both have increased considerably in recent years consequent to increased longevity and population growth. Recent research has revealed critical involvement of inflammatory pathways in AD. Progressively more links are being continuously found between inflammation and central nervous system (CNS) disorders like AD, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury and even cancers of the nervous tissue. The depth of the relationship depends on the timing and extent of anti- or pro-inflammatory gene expression. Inflammation has also been implicated in T2DM. Misfolding and fibrillization (of tissue specific and/or non-specific proteins) represent a feature common to both AD and T2DM and are induced by as well as contribute to inflammation and stress (oxidative/ glycation). This review appraises the roles of inflammation and abnormalities in insulin signalling system as important shared features of T2DM and AD. The capacity of anti-cholinesterases in reducing the level of certain common inflammatory markers is considered, and in particular whether they may provide therapeutic potential to mitigate health problems lying along the routes leading to AD and T2DM.
PMID: 24074448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]