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Staurosporine induces dopaminergic neurite outgrowth through AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.
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Neuropharmacology 2013 Sep; 77C:39-48
Authors: Seiko Wakita, Yasuhiko Izumi, Toshie Nakai, Kanami Adachi, Yuki Takada-Takatori, Toshiaki Kume, Akinori Akaike
Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Axonal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is one of the pathological features in the early stages of Parkinson disease. Promotion of axonal outgrowth of the remaining dopaminergic neurons leads to the recovery of the nigrostriatal pathway. Staurosporine (STS), a wide-spectrum kinase inhibitor, induces neurite outgrowth in various cell types, although its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed which protein kinase is involved in STS-induced neurite outgrowth. We have previously established the method to measure the length of dopaminergic neurites that extend from a mesencephalic cell region, which is formed on a coverslip by an isolation wall. By means of this method, we clarified that STS treatment causes dopaminergic axonal outgrowth in mesencephalic primary cultures. Among the specific protein kinase inhibitors we tested, compound C (C.C), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, promoted dopaminergic neurite outgrowth. STS as well as C.C elevated the phosphorylation level of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The STS- and C.C-induced dopaminergic neurite outgrowth was suppressed by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, the application of C.C rescued 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurite degeneration. These results suggest that STS induces dopaminergic axonal outgrowth through mTOR signaling pathway activation as a consequence of AMPK inhibition.
PMID: 24067927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]