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Mutations that affect mitochondrial functions and their association with neurodegenerative diseases.
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Mutat Res 2013 Sep;
Authors: Varinderpal S Dhillon, Michael Fenech
Preventative-Health Flagship, Gate 13, Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia; CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Gate 13, Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address: Varinderpal.email@example.com.
Mitochondria are essential for mammalian and human cell function as they generate ATP via aerobic respiration. The proteins required in the electron transport chain are mainly encoded by the circular mitochondrial genome but other essential mitochondrial proteins such as DNA repair genes, are coded in the nuclear genome and require transport into the mitochondria. In this review we summarize current knowledge on the association of point mutations and deletions in the mitochondrial genome that are detrimental to mitochondrial function and are associated with accelerated ageing and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the nuclear encoded genes that disrupt mitochondrial functions are also discussed. It is evident that a greater understanding of the causes of mutations that adversely affect mitochondrial metabolism is required to develop preventive measures against accelerated ageing and neurological disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction.
PMID: 24055911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]